l' ungherese m. [LING.] Ungarische ohne Artikel. fiorino ungherese. Übersetzung im Kontext von „ungherese,“ in Italienisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: ungherese, governo ungherese, minoranza ungherese, parlamento. ungherese [uŋgeˈreːse] SUBST m l' (lingua). ungherese · Ungarisch(e) nt.
Übersetzung für "ungherese," im DeutschPer quanto riguarda il settore dei trasporti ungherese, sono stati espressi una riserva e un parere con rilievi con un impatto significativo a causa dell'elevato. l' ungherese m. [LING.] Ungarische ohne Artikel. fiorino ungherese. tutors-db.com | Übersetzungen für 'ungherese' im Italienisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen.
Ungherese Availability VideoSALUTARE IN UNGHERESE ☾ Chibi Magyar
Ungherese. - Erratene ÜbersetzungenSo möchte ich beispielsweise auf die Behandlung der ungarischen Minderheit sowohl in der Slowakei als auch in Rumänien hinweisen.
Hungarians did in fact absorb some Turkic influences during several centuries of cohabitation. For example, the Hungarians appear to have learned animal husbandry techniques from the Turkic Chuvash people , as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture and livestock are of Chuvash origin.
A strong Chuvash influence was also apparent in Hungarian burial customs. The Kingdom of Hungary was founded in by Stephen I. The earliest remaining fragments of the language are found in the establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany from , intermingled with Latin text.
The first extant text fully written in Hungarian is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer , which dates to the s. Although the orthography of these early texts differed considerably from that used today, contemporary Hungarians can still understand a great deal of the reconstructed spoken language, despite changes in grammar and vocabulary.
A more extensive body of Hungarian literature arose after The earliest known example of Hungarian religious poetry is the 14th-century Lamentations of Mary.
The first Bible translation was the Hussite Bible in the s. There were also changes in the system of vowel harmony. At one time, Hungarian used six verb tenses , while today only two or three are used.
By the 17th century, the language already closely resembled its present-day form, although two of the past tenses remained in use. German, Italian and French loans also began to appear.
Further Turkish words were borrowed during the period of Ottoman rule to This movement produced more than ten thousand words, most of which are used actively today.
The 19th and 20th centuries saw further standardization of the language, and differences between mutually comprehensible dialects gradually diminished.
In , Hungary signed the Treaty of Trianon , losing 71 percent of its territory and one-third of the ethnic Hungarian population along with it.
Today the language holds official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Romania , Slovakia , Serbia , Austria and Slovenia.
Hungarian has about 13 million    native speakers, of whom more than 9. According to the Hungarian census, 9,, people Of these, the largest group lives in Transylvania , the western half of present-day Romania , where there are approximately 1.
There are large Hungarian communities also in Slovakia , Serbia and Ukraine , and Hungarians can also be found in Austria , Croatia , and Slovenia , as well as about a million additional people scattered in other parts of the world.
For example, there are more than one hundred thousand Hungarian speakers in the Hungarian American community and 1.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary, and thus an official language of the European Union. Hungarian is officially recognized as a minority or regional language in Austria , Croatia , Romania , Zakarpattia in Ukraine , and Slovakia.
These dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Hungarian has 14 vowel phonemes and 25 consonant phonemes. Most of the pairs have an almost similar pronunciation and vary significantly only in their duration.
Consonant length is also distinctive in Hungarian. Most consonant phonemes can occur as geminates.
A single 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar tap akkora 'of that size' , but a double 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar trill akkorra 'by that time' , like in Spanish.
Primary stress is always on the first syllable of a word, as in Finnish and the neighbouring Slovak and Czech.
Elongated vowels in non-initial syllables may seem to be stressed to an English-speaker [ citation needed ] , as length and stress correlate in English.
Hungarian is an agglutinative language. It uses various affixes , mainly suffixes but also some prefixes and a circumfix , to change a word's meaning and its grammatical function.
Hungarian uses vowel harmony to attach suffixes to words. That means that most suffixes have two or three different forms, and the choice between them depends on the vowels of the head word.
There are some minor and unpredictable exceptions to the rule. Nouns have 18 cases ,  which are formed regularly with suffixes. Unlike English, Hungarian uses case suffixes and nearly always postpositions instead of prepositions.
There are two types of articles in Hungarian, definite and indefinite, which roughly correspond to the equivalents in English.
Adjectives precede nouns a piros alma 'the red apple' and have three degrees: positive piros 'red' , comparative pirosabb 'redder' and superlative a legpirosabb 'the reddest'.
The neutral word order is subject—verb—object SVO. However, Hungarian is a topic-prominent language , and so has a word order that depends not only on syntax but also on the topic—comment structure of the sentence for example, what aspect is assumed to be known and what is emphasized.
A Hungarian sentence generally has the following order: topic, comment or focus , verb and the rest. The topic shows that the proposition is only for that particular thing or aspect, and it implies that the proposition is not true for some others.
Literally 'The apple John sees. The topic part may be empty. The focus shows the new information for the listeners that may not have been known or that their knowledge must be corrected.
Literally, 'It is I who am your father'. Although Hungarian is sometimes described as having free word order, different word orders are generally not interchangeable, and the neutral order is not always correct to use.
Also, the intonation is also different with different topic-comment structures. The topic usually has a rising intonation, the focus having a falling intonation.
In the following examples, the topic is marked with italics, and the focus comment is marked with boldface. Some anomalies emerged with the arrival of multinational companies who have addressed their customers in the te least polite form right from the beginning of their presence in Hungary.
A typical example is the Swedish furniture shop IKEA , whose web site and other publications address the customers in te form. Another example is the communication of Telenor a mobile network operator towards its customers.
Telenor chose to communicate towards business customers in the polite ön form while all other customers are addressed in the less polite te form.
During the first early phase of Hungarian language reforms late 18th and early 19th centuries more than ten thousand words were coined,  several thousand of which are still actively used today see also Ferenc Kazinczy , the leading figure of the Hungarian language reforms.
Kazinczy's chief goal was to replace existing words of German and Latin origins with newly-created Hungarian words.
Romania principalmente in Transilvania. Serbia soprattutto Voivodina. Ucraina soprattutto Transcarpazia. Stati Uniti.
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Write a review. Hungary's cultural, historical, and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. The "H" in the name of Hungary and Latin Hungaria is most likely due to founded historical associations with the Huns , who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars.
Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars.
The name "Magyar", which refers to the people of the country, more accurately reflects the name of the country in some other languages such as Turkish , Persian and other languages as Magyaristan or Land of Magyars or similar.
The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri. After the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century AD under the stress of the migration of Germanic tribes and Carpian pressure, the Migration Period continued to bring many invaders into Central Europe, beginning with the Hunnic Empire c.
The most powerful ruler of the Hunnic Empire was Attila the Hun — who later became a central figure in Hungarian mythology.
After the disintegration of the Hunnic Empire, the Gepids , an Eastern Germanic tribe, who had been vassalized by the Huns, established their own kingdom in the Carpathian Basin.
In the s, the Avars founded the Avar Khaganate, a state that maintained supremacy in the region for more than two centuries.
The Franks under Charlemagne defeated the Avars in a series of campaigns during the s. By the mid-9th century, the Balaton Principality , also known as Lower Pannonia, was established west of the Danube river as part of the Frankish March of Pannonia.
The First Bulgarian Empire conquered the lands east of the Danube river and took over rule of the local Slavic tribes and remnants of the Avars.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in , some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in , before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary "Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources  was a state created by a semi-nomadic people.
It accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century. This state was well-functioning and the nation's military power allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns and raids , from Constantinople to as far as today's Spain.
By , Stephen consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western feudal state. The country switched to using the Latin language , and until as late as , Latin remained the official language of Hungary.
Around this time, Hungary began to become a powerful kingdom. This exceeded the income of the French king estimated at 17 tonnes and was double the receipts of the English Crown.
Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world.
His Golden Bull of was the first constitution in Continental Europe. The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament parlamentum publicum.
In —, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol Tatar invasion. Up to half of Hungary's then population of 2,, were victims of the invasion.
The Mongols returned to Hungary in , but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights stopped them.
As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force. After King Louis died without a male heir, the country was stabilized only when Sigismund of Luxembourg — succeeded to the throne, who in also became Holy Roman Emperor.
The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in For half a year in , there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania , the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt , which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas.
From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander.
He was elected governor then regent. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background.
He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning. The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates.
Matthias' mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Hungary , was an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna and parts of Bohemia.
King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II — , supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy.
The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country.
With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in , Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century.
The north-western part, termed as Royal Hungary , was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvania , under Ottoman and later Habsburg suzerainty.
The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda. The vast majority of the seventeen and nineteen thousand Ottoman soldiers in service in the Ottoman fortresses in the territory of Hungary were Orthodox and Muslim Balkan Slavs rather than ethnic Turkish people.
After some more crushing defeats of the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks.
A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished. The uprisings lasted for years.
Three years later, because of the growing desertion, defeatism and low morale, the Kuruc forces finally surrendered. During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades.
The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in to handle financial needs. A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry.
Lajos Kossuth — a famous journalist at that time — emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament.
A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to civil and political rights and economic reforms.
On 15 March , mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers.
Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile. Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable and major military defeats of Austria forced the Habsburgs to negotiate the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of , by which the dual Monarchy of Austria—Hungary was formed.
This Empire had the second largest area in Europe after the Russian Empire , and it was the third most populous after Russia and the German Empire.
The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies.
Economically, the empire was a customs union. The era witnessed impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialized by the turn of the 20th century, although agriculture remained dominant until Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.
The troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the Brusilov Offensive in June , and a few months later, when the Romanian army made an attack into Transylvania,  both of which were repelled.
In comparison, of the total army, Hungary's loss ratio was more than any other nations of Austria-Hungary. The Central Powers conquered Serbia.
Romania declared war. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire. The Eastern front of the Allied Entente Powers completely collapsed.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat on the more important Western front.
By , the economic situation had deteriorated strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements and uprisings in the army had become commonplace.
In the capital cities, the Austrian and Hungarian leftist liberal movements the maverick parties and their leaders supported the separatism of ethnic minorities.
Austria-Hungary signed a general armistice in Padua on 3 November President Woodrow Wilson 's demand for pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army.
The Little Entente , sensing an opportunity, invaded the country from three sides—Romania invaded Transylvania , Czechoslovakia annexed Upper Hungary today's Slovakia , and a joint Serb - French coalition annexed Vojvodina and other southern regions.
Despite some successes on the Czechoslovak front, Kun's forces were ultimately unable to resist the Romanian invasion; by August , Romanian troops occupied Budapest and ousted Kun.
In January , parliamentary elections were held and Horthy was proclaimed Regent of the reestablished Kingdom of Hungary , inaugurating the so-called "Horthy era" Horthy-kor.
The new government worked quickly to normalize foreign relations while turning a blind eye to a White Terror that swept through the countryside; extrajudicial killings of suspected communists and Jews lasted well into On 4 June of that year, the Treaty of Trianon established new borders for Hungary.
The initial years of the Horthy regime were preoccupied by putsch attempts by Charles IV , the Austro-Hungarian pretender ; continued suppression of communists; and a migration crisis triggered by the Trianon territorial changes.
Though free elections continued, Horthy's personality, and those of his personally selected prime ministers, dominated the political scene.
The government's actions continued to drift right with the passage of antisemitic laws and, due to the continued isolation of the Little Entente, economic and then political gravitation toward Italy and Germany.
Horthy's nationalist agenda reached its apogee in and , when the Nazis rewarded Hungary's staunchly pro-Germany foreign policy in the First and Second Vienna Awards , respectively, peacefully restoring ethnic-Hungarian-majority areas lost after Trianon.
In , Hungary regained further territory from Czechoslovakia through force. Hungary formally joined the Axis Powers on 20 November , and in , participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia , gaining some of its former territories in the south.
Hungarian troops fought on the Eastern Front for two years. Despite some early successes ,  the Hungarian government began seeking a secret peace pact with the Allies after the Second Army suffered catastrophic losses at the River Don in January Learning of the planned defection, German troops occupied Hungary on 19 March to guarantee Horthy's compliance.
By October , the Soviets had reached the river Tisza, and despite some losses , succeeded in encircling and besieging Budapest in December. After German occupation, Hungary participated in the Holocaust.
Nearly all of them were murdered. In addition to the over , Hungarian Jews killed,  as many as ,   other Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labor by Czechoslovaks,       Soviet Red Army troops,    and Yugoslavs.
On 13 February , Budapest surrendered; by April, German troops left the country under Soviet military occupation. His government's policies of militarization, industrialization, collectivization, and war compensation led to a severe decline in living standards.
In the ensuing purges approximately , officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from to Some , Hungarians were deported to Soviet labor camps, where at least , died.
The following political cooling saw the ascent of Imre Nagy to the premiership, and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life.
Hungary joined the Warsaw Pact in May , as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October , protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the Revolution.
In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy returned as premier, promised free elections, and took Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact.
Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October , most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the countryside.
For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc.
On 4 November, reinforcements of more than , troops and 2, tanks entered the country from the Soviet Union. Some 13, were interned and brought to trial and executed.
Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.
In , the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising.
In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us. The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one-tenth of pre-revolutionary levels.
From the s through the late s, Hungary was often referred to as " the happiest barrack " within the Eastern bloc.
In the s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond.
Over , people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country.
Free elections were held in May , and the Hungarian Democratic Forum , a major conservative opposition group, was elected to the head of a coalition government.
With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in , Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession. The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the Socialist Party , won the subsequent elections.
This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in and ; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected.
Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in and the European Union in The legislature consequently approved a new constitution , among other sweeping governmental and legal changes.
Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in and a third in Proponents of the vote claimed that the Hungarian government posed a "systematic threat" to democracy and the rule of law.
The vote was carried with the support of MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required. The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state.
In March , during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic , the Hungarian parliament passed a law granting the Government the power to rule by decree to the extent it is necessary to diminish the consequences of the pandemic, suspending by-elections and outlawing the "spreading of misinformation" [ clarification needed ].
The Government's special authorization is in force until the pandemic is declared to have ended. Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the Danube and Tisza rivers.
The Danube flows north—south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin.
Transdanubia , which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains.
To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. Hungary is a landlocked country.
Si coltivano legumi , cereali , frutta, ortaggi, uva, tabacco, lino, canapa e peperoni rossi, da cui si ricava la paprica , inoltre si allevano cavalli , bovini e ovini.
Le principali industrie sono quelle meccaniche, chimiche e farmaceutiche. Inoltre si estraggono la bauxite, la lignite, il carbon fossile e il gas naturale.
Questo piatto consiste in una sostanziosa minestra a base di carne , lardo, soffritto di cipolla e carote , patate e paprica. Il momento del raccolto viene vissuto come un rito gioioso.
L'8 settembre le donne, vestite con costumi sgargianti, raccolgono i peperoni nei campi e dopo averli infilzati con ago e filo fanno delle lunghe ghirlande che appendono a speciali sostegni di legno o ai muri delle case.
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