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Accessed 9 Dec. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for spin spin. Entry 1 of 2 : to turn or cause someone or something to turn around repeatedly : to seem to be moving around in a way that makes you feel dizzy or sick : to draw out and twist fibers of cotton, wool, silk, etc.
Entry 1 of 2 1 : to turn or cause to turn round and round rapidly : twirl He fell after spinning in circles.
The room was spinning. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Test Your Vocabulary Musical Words Quiz Which word describes a musical performance marked by the absence of instrumental accompaniment?
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Sign up. Register Login. Home Promotions About Us. Wolfgang Pauli in was the first to propose a doubling of the number of available electron states due to a two-valued non-classical "hidden rotation".
When Paul Dirac derived his relativistic quantum mechanics in , electron spin was an essential part of it. As the name suggests, spin was originally conceived as the rotation of a particle around some axis.
While the question of whether elementary particles actually rotate is ambiguous as they are point-like , this picture is correct insofar as spin obeys the same mathematical laws as quantized angular momenta do; in particular, spin implies that the particle's phase changes with angle.
On the other hand, spin has some peculiar properties that distinguish it from orbital angular momenta:. The value of s for an elementary particle depends only on the type of particle, and cannot be altered in any known way in contrast to the spin direction described below.
The spin angular momentum, S , of any physical system is quantized. The allowed values of S are. In contrast, orbital angular momentum can only take on integer values of s ; i.
The two families of particles obey different rules and broadly have different roles in the world around us. In contrast, bosons obey the rules of Bose—Einstein statistics and have no such restriction, so they may "bunch together" in identical states.
Also, composite particles can have spins different from their component particles. For example, a helium atom in the ground state has spin 0 and behaves like a boson, even though the quarks and electrons which make it up are all fermions.
The spin—statistics theorem splits particles into two groups: bosons and fermions , where bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics and fermions obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and therefore the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
Specifically, the theory states that particles with an integer spin are bosons while all other particles have half-integer spins and are fermions.
As an example, electrons have half-integer spin and are fermions that obey the Pauli exclusion principle, while photons have integer spin and do not.
The theorem relies on both quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity , and this connection between spin and statistics has been called "one of the most important applications of the special relativity theory".
Since elementary particles are point-like, self-rotation is not well-defined for them. This is equivalent to the quantum mechanical interpretation of momentum as phase dependence in the position, and of orbital angular momentum as phase dependence in the angular position.
Spin represents polarization for other vector bosons as well. For fermions, the picture is less clear. However whether this holds for free electron is ambiguous, since for an electron, S 2 is constant, and therefore it is a matter of interpretation whether the Hamiltonian includes such a term.
Nevertheless, spin appears in the Dirac equation , and thus the relativistic Hamiltonian of the electron, treated as a Dirac field , can be interpreted as including a dependence in the spin S.
Particles with spin can possess a magnetic dipole moment , just like a rotating electrically charged body in classical electrodynamics.
These magnetic moments can be experimentally observed in several ways, e. For exclusively orbital rotations it would be 1 assuming that the mass and the charge occupy spheres of equal radius.
The electron, being a charged elementary particle, possesses a nonzero magnetic moment. Composite particles also possess magnetic moments associated with their spin.
In particular, the neutron possesses a non-zero magnetic moment despite being electrically neutral. This fact was an early indication that the neutron is not an elementary particle.
In fact, it is made up of quarks , which are electrically charged particles. The magnetic moment of the neutron comes from the spins of the individual quarks and their orbital motions.
Neutrinos are both elementary and electrically neutral. The minimally extended Standard Model that takes into account non-zero neutrino masses predicts neutrino magnetic moments of:   .
New physics above the electroweak scale could, however, lead to significantly higher neutrino magnetic moments. Experimental results have put the neutrino magnetic moment at less than 1.
On the other hand elementary particles with spin but without electric charge, such as a photon or a Z boson, do not have a magnetic moment. In ordinary materials, the magnetic dipole moments of individual atoms produce magnetic fields that cancel one another, because each dipole points in a random direction, with the overall average being very near zero.
Ferromagnetic materials below their Curie temperature , however, exhibit magnetic domains in which the atomic dipole moments are locally aligned, producing a macroscopic, non-zero magnetic field from the domain.
These are the ordinary "magnets" with which we are all familiar. In paramagnetic materials, the magnetic dipole moments of individual atoms spontaneously align with an externally applied magnetic field.
In diamagnetic materials, on the other hand, the magnetic dipole moments of individual atoms spontaneously align oppositely to any externally applied magnetic field, even if it requires energy to do so.
The study of the behavior of such " spin models " is a thriving area of research in condensed matter physics.
For instance, the Ising model describes spins dipoles that have only two possible states, up and down, whereas in the Heisenberg model the spin vector is allowed to point in any direction.
These models have many interesting properties, which have led to interesting results in the theory of phase transitions.
In classical mechanics, the angular momentum of a particle possesses not only a magnitude how fast the body is rotating , but also a direction either up or down on the axis of rotation of the particle.
Quantum mechanical spin also contains information about direction, but in a more subtle form. Quantum mechanics states that the component of angular momentum for a spin-s particle measured along any direction can only take on the values .
Conventionally the direction chosen is the z -axis:. This vector then would describe the "direction" in which the spin is pointing, corresponding to the classical concept of the axis of rotation.
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